January 21, 2021

Linkers and Connectors

LINKERS

Contrast

.     In spite of / Despite Link two contrasting ideas. Followed by a noun phrase. 

.     Although / (Even) though Link two contrasting ideas. Followed by a sentence. 

.     However / Nevertheless / Still / Yet / Even so / On the contrary / In contrast. Introduce a new idea which marks a contrast with previously stated ideas. Introduced by a comma. 

.     On the one hand ... On the other hand. Links two contrasting ideas / paragraphs. 

.     In contrast to / Contrary to. Link two contrasting ideas. Followed by a noun phrase. 

.     Whereas Link two contrasting ideas. Not separated by commas. 
Reason and cause

.     Because / As / Since / Seeing that Introduce a sentence. Subordinate sentences introduced by because always appear in final position. 

.     Because of / On account of / Owing to / Due to. Introduce a noun phrase. 

Purpose
 
.     In order to So as to Introduce an infinitive of purpose.

.     In order that / So that Introduce a sentence. 

Consequence

    . Consequently / As a consequence / As a result / Therefore   
    . As a consequence of / As a result of Followed by a noun phrase. 

.     So Introduces a sentence. No commas.   

Addition

    . Moreover / Furthermore / In addition / Besides What's more Used after a strong pause and separated from the sentences. They are introduced by a comma. 

    . As well as / In addition to / Besides Used to add  one more piece of information. Followed by a noun phrase. 

.Exemplification

      For example / For instance Introduces an example referring to previously stated ideas.
 
.     Such as Introduces an example referring to the last idea.

CONNECTORS
Contrast

    but / yet: followed by a noun phrase or a sentence. 
        ‘The book is short but / yet interesting’

    in spite of / despite: It is placed at the beginning or in the middle of the sentence.
        ‘He arrived on time despite / in spite of getting up late’

    although / though/ even though / in spite of the fact that: followed by a complete sentence. They can be placed at the beginning or in the middle of the sentence. If it is placed at the beginning we need to use a comma after the clause.  
  ‘Although / though / even though / in spite of the fact that the pupils had not studied, they all passed their exams’. 
  
    however, nevertheless, even so, on the one hand, on the other hand, on the contrary
‘He was quite ill however/ nevertheless/ even so, he went to school’

.     while, whereas   
        ‘This film is very interesting, while/whereas that one is quite boring’  

Reason and cause

    because, as since, seeing that:  
        ‘Because / as / since / seeing that it’s late, we should go home’ 

    because of, on account of, owing to, due to: 
        ‘Because of / on account of / owing to / due to the weather, we stayed at home’

.     in order to, so as to, to: 
        ‘She uses her video in order to / so as to / to record TV programmes’ 

Add information

    for example, for instance, such as: 
        ‘Vegetables and fruit are a good source of vitamins: for example / for instance, oranges have vitamin C’ 

    more over, furthermore, besides, in addition to: 
        ‘In addition to soul music, she likes rap’ 

.     apart from, except for: 
        ‘Apart from English, she speaks Telugu fluently’.

Succession

. -     First of all / Firstly / To begin with / First …. 
 -     Second / Secondly / Then … 
 -     Third / Thirdly / After that...
 -     The next stage … 
 -     Finally / in short / to sum up / in conclusion / lastly / last but not least…  
  
 Result

    As a result of
        ‘As a result of his brave action, he was awarded a military medal. 

    Therefore, as a result, consequently, for this reason: 
        ‘Consequently / for this reason, it always passes its annual road test’. 


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